alrn-10q_20180630.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-38130

 

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

13-4196017

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

281 Albany Street

Cambridge, MA

 

02139

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 995-0900

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Emerging growth Company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of August 6, 2018, the registrant had 14,737,402 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

2

Item 1.

 

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

2

 

 

Condensed Balance Sheets

 

2

 

 

Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

3

 

 

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

 

4

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

17

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

26

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

26

PART II.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

27

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

27

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

27

Item 2.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

61

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

 

62

 

 

Signatures

 

63

 

1


 

 

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements.

AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

June 30,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

11,980

 

 

$

11,863

 

Investments

 

 

23,811

 

 

 

38,889

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

1,390

 

 

 

1,000

 

Restricted cash

 

 

25

 

 

 

88

 

Total current assets

 

 

37,206

 

 

 

51,840

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

4,123

 

 

 

154

 

Restricted cash, non-current

 

 

568

 

 

 

 

Other assets

 

 

680

 

 

 

694

 

Total assets

 

$

42,577

 

 

$

52,688

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

1,583

 

 

$

1,600

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

4,781

 

 

 

3,291

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

6,364

 

 

 

4,891

 

Construction financing liability, net of current portion

 

 

3,345

 

 

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

9,709

 

 

 

4,891

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized

   at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively; no shares

   issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 150,000,000 shares authorized at

   June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017; 14,737,402 and 14,723,818

   shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017,

   respectively

 

 

15

 

 

 

15

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

186,890

 

 

 

184,761

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(12

)

 

 

(33

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(154,025

)

 

 

(136,946

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

32,868

 

 

 

47,797

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

42,577

 

 

$

52,688

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

 

2


 

 

AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS (UNAUDITED)

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenue

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

5,320

 

 

 

3,161

 

 

 

10,166

 

 

 

6,103

 

General and administrative

 

 

4,339

 

 

 

1,791

 

 

 

7,256

 

 

 

3,438

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

9,659

 

 

 

4,952

 

 

 

17,422

 

 

 

9,541

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(9,659

)

 

 

(4,952

)

 

 

(17,422

)

 

 

(9,541

)

Interest income

 

 

168

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

343

 

 

 

61

 

Net loss

 

 

(9,491

)

 

 

(4,923

)

 

 

(17,079

)

 

 

(9,480

)

Accretion of redeemable convertible preferred stock to

   redemption value

 

 

 

 

 

(21

)

 

 

0

 

 

 

(41

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(9,491

)

 

$

(4,944

)

 

$

(17,079

)

 

$

(9,521

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders—basic

    and diluted

 

$

(0.64

)

 

$

(10.98

)

 

$

(1.16

)

 

$

(21.56

)

Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic and diluted

 

 

14,737,236

 

 

 

450,495

 

 

 

14,734,775

 

 

 

441,661

 

Comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

(9,491

)

 

 

(4,923

)

 

$

(17,079

)

 

$

(9,480

)

Other comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain on investments, net of tax of $0

 

 

38

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

 

 

 

 

Total other comprehensive loss

 

 

38

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

 

 

 

 

Total comprehensive loss

 

$

(9,453

)

 

$

(4,923

)

 

$

(17,058

)

 

$

(9,480

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

 

 

3


 

AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(17,079

)

 

$

(9,480

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization expense

 

 

82

 

 

 

45

 

Net amortization of premiums and discounts on investments

 

 

(93

)

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

2,101

 

 

 

469

 

Change in deferred rent

 

 

(11

)

 

 

(11

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

141

 

 

 

(291

)

Other assets

 

 

15

 

 

 

59

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(22

)

 

 

(500

)

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

481

 

 

 

252

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(14,385

)

 

 

(9,457

)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(213

)

 

 

(47

)

Purchases of investments

 

 

(20,763

)

 

 

(8,747

)

Proceeds from sales or maturities of investments

 

 

35,955

 

 

 

6,800

 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

14,979

 

 

 

(1,994

)

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of redeemable convertible preferred stock, net of

   issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

472

 

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

 

 

28

 

 

 

80

 

Payments of initial public offering costs

 

 

 

 

 

(419

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

28

 

 

 

133

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

622

 

 

 

(11,318

)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

11,951

 

 

 

20,715

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

12,573

 

 

$

9,397

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accretion of redeemable convertible preferred stock to redemption value

 

$

 

 

$

41

 

Deferred offering costs included in accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

$

 

 

$

1,803

 

Capitalization of construction-in-progress related to facility lease obligation

 

$

3,940

 

 

$

 

Fixed asset addition included in accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

$

1,025

 

 

$

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

 

4


 

 

AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)

1. Nature of the Business and Basis of Presentation

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc. (“Aileron” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company that is focused on developing and commercializing a novel class of therapeutics called stapled peptides. The Company’s lead product candidate, ALRN-6924, targets the tumor suppressor p53 for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. ALRN-6924 reactivates p53-mediated tumor suppression by targeting the two primary p53 suppressor proteins, MDMX and MDM2. ALRN-6924 was in multiple clinical trials as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry, including but not limited to, new technological innovations, protection of proprietary technology, dependence on key personnel, compliance with government regulations and the need to obtain additional financing. Product candidates currently under development will require significant additional research and development efforts, including extensive preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval, prior to commercialization. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel infrastructure, and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities.

The Company’s product candidates are in development. There can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully completed, that adequate protection for the Company’s intellectual property will be obtained, that any products developed will obtain necessary governmental regulatory approval or that any approved products will be commercially viable. Even if the Company’s drug development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will generate significant revenue from product sales. The Company operates in an environment of rapid change in technology and substantial competition from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. In addition, the Company is dependent upon the services of its key employees and consultants.

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).

Reverse Stock Split

On June 16, 2017, in connection with its initial public offering of its common stock (“IPO”), the Company effected a one-for-9.937 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding shares of common stock and a proportional adjustment to the existing conversion ratios for each series of the Company’s redeemable convertible preferred stock (see Note 6). Accordingly, all common share and per share amounts for all periods presented in the accompanying financial statements and notes thereto have been adjusted retroactively, where applicable, to reflect this reverse stock split and the associated adjustment of the preferred stock conversion ratios.

Initial Public Offering

On June 28, 2017, the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 relating to its IPO was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In the IPO, which closed on July 5, 2017, the Company issued and sold 3,750,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $15.00 per share for net proceeds of $50,009 after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $3,937 and offering expenses of $2,304. Upon the closing of the IPO, all 106,114,520 shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an aggregate of 10,509,774 common shares.

Liquidity

In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-15, Disclosures of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40), management must evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. This evaluation initially does not take into consideration the potential mitigating effect of management’s plans that have not been fully implemented as of the date the financial statements are issued. When substantial doubt exists under this methodology, management evaluates whether the mitigating effect of its plans sufficiently alleviates substantial doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The mitigating effect of management’s plans, however, is only considered if both (1) it is probable that the plans will be effectively implemented within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued, and (2) it is probable that the plans, when implemented, will mitigate the relevant conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. Generally, to be considered probable of being effectively implemented, the plans must have been approved before the date that the financial statements are issued.

5


 

The Company’s financial statements have been prepared on the basis of continuity of operations, realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. Through June 30, 2018, the Company has funded its operations with net proceeds of $50,009 from its IPO, $131,211 from sales of preferred stock and $34,910 from a collaboration agreement. As of June 30, 2018, the Company had cash, cash equivalents and investments of $35,791. The Company has incurred losses and negative cash flows from operations and had an accumulated deficit of $154,025 as of June 30, 2018. The Company expects to continue to generate losses for the foreseeable future.

As of August 7, 2018, the date of issuance of these unaudited interim condensed financial statements, the Company expects that its cash, cash equivalents and investments of $35,791 as of June 30, 2018 will be sufficient to fund its operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least the next twelve months. The future viability of the Company is dependent on its ability to raise additional capital to finance its operations. Although the Company has been successful in raising capital in the past, there is no assurance that it will be successful in obtaining such additional financing on terms acceptable to the Company, if at all.

To execute its business plans, the Company will need substantial funding to support its continuing operations and pursue its growth strategy. Until such time as the Company can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, it expects to finance its operations through the sale of common stock in public offering and/or private placements, debt financings or other capital sources, including collaborations with other companies or other strategic transactions. The Company may not be able to obtain financing on acceptable terms or at all. The terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of the Company’s stockholders. If the Company is unable to obtain funding, the Company could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate some or all of its research and development programs, product portfolio expansion plans or commercialization efforts, which could adversely affect its business prospects.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these financial statements include, but are not limited to, the accrual of research and development expenses and the valuation of common stock and stock-based awards. Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates.

Unaudited Interim Financial Information

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements as of June 30, 2018 and for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 have been prepared by the Company, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC for interim financial statements. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. However, the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and the notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 that was filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018.

 

The unaudited interim condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of June 30, 2018, the results of its operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 and its cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. The financial data and other information disclosed in these notes related to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 are unaudited. The results for the six months ended June 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018, any other interim periods, or any future year or period. The accompanying balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 has been derived from the Company’s audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 previously filed with the SEC.

 

Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at acquisition date to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents, which consist of money market accounts, corporate notes and commercial paper, are stated at fair value.

6


 

Restricted Cash

As of June 30, 2018, current restricted cash of $25 consisted entirely of cash deposited in a separate restricted bank account as a security deposit for the Company’s corporate credit cards. As of December 31, 2017, current restricted cash consisted of $25 of cash deposited in a separate restricted bank account as a security deposit for the Company’s corporate credit cards and $63 of cash deposited in a separate restricted bank account as a security deposit for the lease of the Company’s facility. As of June 30, 2018, non-current restricted cash consisted of $568 of cash deposited in a separate restricted bank account as a security deposit for the lease of the Company’s new facility (see Note 11).

Investments

The Company classifies its available-for-sale investments as current assets on the balance sheet if they mature within one year from the balance sheet date.

The Company classifies all of its investments as available-for-sale securities. The Company’s investments are measured and reported at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for similar securities or using other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data. Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are reported as accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity (deficit). The cost of securities sold is determined on a specific identification basis, and realized gains and losses are included in other income (expense) within the statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

The Company evaluates its investments with unrealized losses for other-than-temporary impairment. When assessing investments for other-than-temporary declines in value, the Company considers such factors as, among other things, how significant the decline in value is as a percentage of the original cost, how long the market value of the investment has been less than its original cost, the Company’s ability and intent to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value and market conditions in general. If any adjustment to fair value reflects a decline in the value of the investment that the Company considers to be “other than temporary”, the Company reduces the investment to fair value through a charge to the statements of operations and comprehensive loss. No such adjustments were necessary during the periods presented.

Fair Value Measurements

Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are to be classified and disclosed in one of the following three levels of the fair value hierarchy, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable.

 

 

Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2—Observable inputs (other than Level 1 quoted prices), such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.

 

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.

The Company’s cash equivalents and investments are carried at fair value, determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above (see Note 3). The carrying values of the Company’s accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair value due to the short-term nature of these liabilities.

Net Income (Loss) per Share

The Company follows the two-class method when computing net income (loss) per share as the Company has issued shares that meet the definition of participating securities. The two-class method determines net income (loss) per share for each class of common and participating securities according to dividends declared or accumulated and participation rights in undistributed earnings. The two-class method requires income available to common stockholders for the period to be allocated between common and participating securities based upon their respective rights to receive dividends as if all income for the period had been distributed.

7


 

Basic net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders is computed by adjusting income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders to reallocate undistributed earnings based on the potential impact of dilutive securities. Diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the diluted net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period, including potential dilutive common shares. For purpose of this calculation, outstanding options to purchase common stock and shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock are considered potential dilutive common shares.

The Company’s redeemable convertible preferred stock contractually entitled the holders of such shares to participate in dividends but contractually did not require the holders of such stock to participate in losses of the Company. Accordingly, in periods in which the Company reports a net loss attributable to common stockholders, diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is the same as basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, since dilutive common shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes all existing revenue recognition requirements, including most industry-specific guidance. The FASB continued to issue accounting standards updates to clarify and provide implementation guidance related to Revenue from Contracts with Customers, including ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contract with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations, ASU 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, and ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients. These new standards were adopted in the first quarter of 2018 and are effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018. The adoption of these standards did not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows as the Company does not currently have any revenue generating arrangements.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”). In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (“ASU 2017-09”), Scope of Modification Accounting which amends ASC Topic 718. These new standards were effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of these standards in the first quarter of 2018 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, (“ASU 2016-02”), which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e. lessees or lessors). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months, regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases today. ASU 2016-02 (Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842) supersedes the previous leases standard, ASC 840, Leases. The standard is effective for public entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on its financial statements.

Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements upon adoption.

8


 

3. Fair Value of Financial Assets

The following tables present information about the Company’s assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the level of the fair value hierarchy utilized to determine such fair values:

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements as of

June 30, 2018 using:

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

8,975

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

8,975

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

1,495

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,495

 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate notes

 

 

 

 

 

10,226

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,226

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

13,585

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,585

 

 

 

$

8,975

 

 

$

25,306

 

 

$

 

 

$

34,281

 

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements as of

December 31, 2017 using:

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

10,509

 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate notes

 

 

 

 

 

25,710

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,710

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

13,179

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,179

 

 

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

38,889

 

 

$

 

 

$

49,398

 

 

 

As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company’s cash equivalents and investments were invested in money market funds, corporate notes and commercial paper and were valued based on Level 1 and Level 2 inputs. In determining the fair value of its corporate notes and commercial paper at each date presented above, the Company relied on quoted prices for similar securities in active markets or using other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data. The Company’s cash equivalents have original maturities of less than 90 days from the date of purchase. All available-for-sale investments have contractual maturities of less than one year. During the six months ended June 30, 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2017, there were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3.

4. Investments

As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of available-for-sale investments by type of security was as follows:

 

 

 

June 30, 2018

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gain

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Loss

 

 

Fair

Value

 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate notes

 

$

10,235

 

 

$

 

 

$

(9

)

 

$

10,226

 

Commercial paper

 

 

13,588

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3

)

 

 

13,585

 

 

 

$

23,823

 

 

$

 

 

$

(12

)

 

$

23,811

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gain

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Loss

 

 

Fair

Value

 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate notes

 

$

25,733

 

 

$

 

 

$

(23

)

 

$

25,710

 

Commercial paper

 

 

13,189

 

 

 

 

 

 

(10

)

 

 

13,179

 

 

 

$

38,922

 

 

$

 

 

$

(33

)

 

$

38,889

 

 

9


 

5. Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:

 

 

 

June 30,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

External research and development services

 

$

1,694

 

 

$

1,284

 

Construction-in-progress related to facility lease obligation

 

 

1,020

 

 

 

 

Payroll and payroll-related costs

 

 

846

 

 

 

1,120

 

Accrued severance

 

 

508

 

 

 

 

Professional fees

 

 

458

 

 

 

536

 

Other

 

 

255

 

 

 

351

 

 

 

$

4,781

 

 

$

3,291

 

 

6. Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock

Prior to the closing of the Company’s IPO in July 2017, the Company had shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding, including shares of Series A, Series A-1, Series B, Series C-1 and Series C-2 redeemable convertible preferred stock (collectively, the “Junior Preferred Stock”) and Series D, Series D-1, Series E, Series E-1, Series E-2, Series E-3 and Series F redeemable convertible preferred stock (collectively, the “Senior Preferred Stock” and, together with the Junior Preferred Stock, the “Redeemable Preferred Stock”). The Redeemable Preferred Stock is classified outside of stockholders’ equity (deficit) because the shares contain redemption features that are not solely within the control of the Company.

In February 2017, the Company issued 483,501 shares of Series F redeemable convertible preferred stock (the “Series F preferred stock”) at a price of $1.36 per share, resulting in proceeds of $626, net of issuance costs of $32. Pursuant to the amended Series F preferred stock purchase agreement, holders of 4,411,765 shares of Series E-1 preferred stock that participated in the February 2017 closing elected to convert their shares of Series E-1 preferred stock into 4,411,765 shares of Series E-3 preferred stock.

The Company determined that the conversion of shares of preferred stock that occurred in February 2017 represented modifications of these securities for accounting purposes; however, the modifications did not result in the recognition of a deemed dividend for accounting purposes because the modifications did not result in a transfer of value from common stockholders to preferred stockholders.

Pursuant to the terms of the amended Series F preferred stock purchase agreement, if the second tranche closing did not occur prior to the closing of the Company’s initial public offering of common stock, then, immediately prior to such closing, the purchasers of the Series F preferred stock would be required to purchase a number of shares of the Company’s common stock equal to $11,516 divided by the price per share paid by the public in the initial public offering in a concurrent private offering. This requirement to purchase shares immediately prior to the closing of the Company’s initial public offering could be waived in whole or in part by the Company’s board of directors. On June 15, 2017, the Company’s board of directors waived in whole, effective immediately prior to the closing of the Company’s IPO, the requirement of the purchasers of Series F preferred stock to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock in a concurrent private offering in connection with the Company’s initial public offering.

Upon the closing of the Company’s IPO on July 5, 2017, all shares of the Redeemable Preferred Stock converted into an aggregate of 10,509,774 shares of common stock. As of June 30, 2018, there were no shares of Redeemable Preferred Stock authorized, issued or outstanding.

7. Stock-Based Awards

2017 Stock Incentive Plan

The Company’s 2017 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2017 Plan”) was approved by the Company’s stockholders on June 16, 2017 and became effective on June 28, 2017. Under the 2017 Plan, the Company may grant incentive stock options, nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, awards of restricted stock units and other stock-based awards. The Company’s employees, officers, directors, consultants and advisors are eligible to receive awards under the 2017 Plan; however, incentive stock options may only be granted to employees. The 2017 Plan is administered by the board of directors or, at the discretion of the board of directors, by a committee of the board. The number of shares of common stock covered by options and the date those options become exercisable, type of options to be granted, exercise prices, vesting and other restrictions are determined at the discretion of the board of directors, or its committee if so delegated.

10


 

Stock options granted under the 2017 Plan with service-based vesting conditions generally vest over four years and may not have a duration in excess of ten years, although options have been granted with vesting terms of less than four years.

The total number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2017 Plan was 2,579,341 as of June 30, 2018, of which 1,501,886 shares remained available for grant. The Company initially reserved 1,244,816 shares of common stock plus the number of shares equal to the sum of the number of shares of common stock then available for issuance under the 2016 plan, which was 424,601 shares, and the number of shares of common stock subject to outstanding awards under the 2006 plan and the 2016 plan that expire, terminate or are otherwise surrendered, canceled, forfeited or repurchased by us at their original issuance price pursuant to a contractual repurchase right. The number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2017 Plan will automatically increase on each January 1, beginning with the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018 and continuing for each fiscal year until, and including, the fiscal year ending December 31, 2027, equal to the least of (i) 1,244,816 shares, (ii) 4% of the outstanding shares of common stock on such date and (iii) an amount determined by the Company’s board of directors. On January 1, 2018, the number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2017 Plan increased by 588,953 shares.

During the six months ended June 30, 2018, pursuant to the terms of the 2017 Plan, the Company granted options to employees and directors to purchase 271,000 shares of common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $7.01 per share.

Shares that are expired, terminated, surrendered or canceled without having been fully exercised will be available for future awards. In addition, shares of common stock that are tendered to the Company by a participant to exercise an award are added to the number of shares of common stock available for the grant of awards.

The exercise price for stock options granted may not be less than the fair market value of the common stock as of the date of grant.

2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

On June 16, 2017, the Company’s stockholders approved the 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2017 ESPP”), which became effective on June 28, 2017. A total of 150,000 shares of common stock were initially reserved for issuance under this plan. The number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2017 ESPP will automatically increase on each January 1, beginning with the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018 and continuing for each fiscal year until, and including, the fiscal year ending December 31, 2027, equal to the least of (i) 622,408 shares, (ii) 1% of the outstanding shares of common stock on such date and (iii) an amount determined by the Company’s board of directors. On January 1, 2018, the Company’s board of directors determined not to increase the number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2017 ESPP.

2016 Stock Incentive Plan

The Company’s 2016 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”) provided for the Company to grant incentive stock options or nonqualified stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and other equity awards to employees, directors and consultants of the Company. The 2016 Plan was administered by the board of directors or, at the discretion of the board of directors, by a committee of the board. The exercise prices, vesting and other restrictions were determined at the discretion of the board of directors, or its committee if so delegated.

Stock options granted under the 2016 Plan with service-based vesting conditions vest over four years and expire after ten years.

In connection with the IPO, the board of directors determined to grant no further awards under the 2016 Plan. No stock options or other awards have been made under the 2016 Plan since the adoption of the 2017 Plan.   

Shares that are expired, terminated, surrendered or canceled without having been fully exercised will be available for future awards under the 2017 Plan. In addition, shares of common stock that are tendered to the Company by a participant to exercise an award are added to the number of shares of common stock available for the grant of awards under the 2017 Plan.

2006 Stock Incentive Plan

The Company’s 2006 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, (the “2006 Plan”) provided for the Company to grant incentive stock options or nonqualified stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and other equity awards to employees, directors and consultants of the Company. The 2006 Plan was administered by the board of directors or, at the discretion of the board of directors, by a committee of the board. The exercise prices, vesting and other restrictions were determined at the discretion of the board of directors, or its committee if so delegated.

11


 

Stock options granted under the 2006 Plan with service-based vesting conditions generally vest over four years and expire after ten years, although options have been granted with vesting terms of less than four years.

The 2006 Plan expired in 2016. Since its expiration no further awards have been granted under the 2006 Plan.  

Shares that are expired, terminated, surrendered or canceled without having been fully exercised will be available for future awards under the 2017 Plan. In addition, shares of common stock that are tendered to the Company by a participant to exercise an award are added to the number of shares of common stock available for the grant of awards under the 2017 Plan.

Stock Option Valuation

The assumptions that the Company used to determine the grant-date fair value of the stock options granted to employees and directors during the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 were as follows, presented on a weighted average basis:

 

 

 

Six Months Ended

June 30, 2018

 

 

Six Months Ended

June 30, 2017

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

2.75

%

 

 

2.19

%

Expected term (in years)

 

 

6.2

 

 

 

6.1

 

Expected volatility

 

 

76.0

%

 

 

80.2

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

0

%

 

 

0

%

 

Stock Options

The following table summarizes the Company’s stock option activity since January 1, 2018:

 

 

 

Number of

Shares

 

 

Weighted

Average

Exercise

Price

 

 

Weighted

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in years)

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2017

 

 

2,096,233

 

 

$

8.02

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

$

7,332

 

Granted

 

 

271,000

 

 

 

7.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

(13,584

)

 

 

2.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

(315,887

)

 

 

9.06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at June 30, 2018

 

 

2,037,762

 

 

$

7.77

 

 

 

6.6

 

 

$

875

 

Options exercisable at June 30, 2018

 

 

1,045,177

 

 

$

5.73

 

 

 

4.1

 

 

$

858

 

Options vested and expected to vest at June 30, 2018

 

 

2,004,599

 

 

$

7.73

 

 

 

6.6

 

 

$

875

 

Options exercisable at December 31, 2017

 

 

784,190

 

 

$

4.71

 

 

 

6.0

 

 

$

4,667

 

Options vested and expected to vest at December 31, 2017

 

 

2,030,629

 

 

$

7.96

 

 

 

7.9

 

 

$

7,198

 

 

The weighted average grant-date fair value of stock options granted during the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 was $4.79 and $5.98, respectively.

The aggregate fair value of stock options that vested during the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 was $1,812 and $412, respectively.

The aggregate intrinsic value of stock options is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the stock options and the fair value of the Company’s common stock for those stock options that had exercise prices lower than the fair value of the Company’s common stock. The aggregate intrinsic value of stock options exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 was $93 and $126, respectively.

12


 

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company recorded stock-based compensation expense related to stock options in the following expense categories of its statements of operations and comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Research and development expenses

 

$

240

 

 

$

131

 

 

$

510

 

 

$

205

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

1,093

 

 

 

142

 

 

 

1,591

 

 

 

264

 

 

 

$

1,333

 

 

$

273

 

 

$

2,101

 

 

$

469

 

 

As of June 30, 2018, the Company had an aggregate of $6,046 of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense, which it expects to recognize over a weighted average period of 2.8 years. In May 2018, the Company modified certain equity awards in connection with a separation agreement with its former Chief Executive Officer. The modification included acceleration of vesting of stock options to purchase 80,822 shares of common stock and an extension of the post-termination exercise period for vested options from 90 days to up to two years. In connection with this modification, the Company recorded an incremental compensation charge of $612 during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.

 

8. Net Loss per Share

Basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders was calculated as follows:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(9,491

)

 

$

(4,923

)

 

$

(17,079

)

 

$

(9,480

)

Accretion of redeemable convertible

   preferred stock to redemption value

 

 

 

 

 

(21

)

 

 

0

 

 

 

(41

)

Net loss attributable to common

   stockholders

 

$

(9,491

)

 

$

(4,944

)

 

$

(17,079

)

 

$

(9,521

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares

   outstanding—basic and diluted.

 

 

14,737,236

 

 

 

450,495

 

 

 

14,734,775

 

 

 

441,661

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common

   stockholders—basic and diluted

 

$

(0.64

)

 

$

(10.98

)

 

$

(1.16

)

 

$

(21.56

)

 

The Company’s potential dilutive securities, which include stock options and redeemable convertible preferred stock, have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders whenever the effect of including them would be to reduce the net loss per share. In periods where there is a net loss, the weighted average number of common shares outstanding used to calculate both basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is the same. The following potential shares of common stock, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

Three and Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Stock options to purchase common stock

 

 

2,037,762

 

 

 

1,444,314

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock (as converted to

   common stock)

 

 

 

 

 

10,509,774

 

 

 

 

2,037,762

 

 

 

11,954,088

 

 

13


 

9. Commitments and Contingencies

Operating Lease

Facility Leases

On April 4, 2018, a lease agreement (the “Lease”) entered into between the Company and 480 Arsenal Group LLC became effective. The Lease is for approximately 18,609 square feet of office and lab space in Watertown, Massachusetts. The Lease has an initial term of eight years and provides the Company with an option to extend the Lease term for one additional five-year period. The future minimum rent commitment for the initial eight-year term is approximately $8,771. In addition to rent, the Lease requires the Company to pay additional amounts for taxes, insurance, maintenance and other operating expenses.

The Company was required to provide a $568 security deposit, which the Company provided in the form of a letter of credit in the favor of the landlord which is included as non-current restricted cash on the balance sheet as of June 30, 2018.

The Company is not the legal owner of the leased space. However, in accordance with ASC 840, Leases, because of the Company’s expected level of direct financial and operational involvement in the substantial tenant improvements required, the Company is deemed to be the owner of the leased space for accounting purposes. As a result, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company capitalized a build-to-suit asset of $3,719 within property, plant and equipment, net and recognized a corresponding build-to-suit facility lease obligation within other liabilities and other non-current liabilities on its balance sheet as of June 30, 2018, equal to the estimated replacement cost of its leased portion of the building at the inception of the Lease.

Additionally, construction costs incurred as part of the build-out and tenant improvements will be capitalized within property, plant and equipment, net. Rental payments made under the Lease will be allocated to imputed ground rent, interest expense and the build-to-suit facility lease obligation, based on the implicit rate of the build-to-suit facility lease obligation. The build-to-suit facility lease obligation was $3,345 as of June 30, 2018.

 

281 Albany Street

In February 2010, the Company entered into an operating lease agreement for office and laboratory space in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which, as amended, expires in August 2018.

Upon entering into the agreement, the Company was required to maintain a security deposit which was recorded as restricted cash on the Company’s balance sheet.

The agreement requires future minimum lease payments for the year ending December 31, 2018 of $85.

The Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period and has recorded deferred rent for rent expense incurred but not yet paid. Rental expense under operating leases totaled $211 and $120 for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively and $339 and $239 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Intellectual Property Licenses

Harvard and Dana-Farber Agreement

In August 2006, the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement with President and Fellows of Harvard College (“Harvard”) and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (“DFCI”). The agreement granted the Company an exclusive worldwide license, with the right to sublicense, under specified patents and patent applications to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize specified product candidates based on stapled peptides. Under the agreement, the Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize one or more licensed products and to achieve specified milestone events by specified dates. In connection with entering into the agreement, the Company paid an upfront license fee and issued to Harvard and DFCI shares of its common stock.

14


 

In February 2010, the agreement was amended and restated (the “Harvard/DFCI agreement”) under which additional patent rights were added to the scope of the license agreement and the annual license maintenance fees were increased. Under the Harvard/DFCI agreement, the Company is obligated to make aggregate milestones payments of up to $7,700 per licensed therapeutic product upon the Company’s achievement of specified clinical, regulatory and sales milestones with respect to such product and up to $700 per licensed diagnostic product upon the Company’s achievement of specified regulatory and sales milestones with respect to such product. In addition, the Company is obligated to pay royalties of low single-digit percentages on annual net sales of licensed products sold by the Company, its affiliates or its sublicensees. The royalties are payable on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis and may be reduced in specified circumstances. In addition, the agreement obligates the Company to pay a percentage, up to the mid-twenties, of fees received by the Company in connection with its sublicense of the licensed products. In accordance with the terms of the agreement, the Company’s sublicense payment obligations may be subject to specified reductions.

The Harvard/DFCI agreement requires the Company to pay annual license maintenance fees of $145 each year. Any payments made in connection with the annual license maintenance fees will be credited against any royalties due.

The Company incurred license fees of $145 during each of the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. In addition, the Company did not make any milestone payments during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, no milestones were achieved and no liabilities for milestone payments were recorded in the Company’s financial statements. From 2010 through June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had made non-refundable cash payments, consisting of license and maintenance fees, milestone payments and sublicense fees, totaling $4,573 and $4,428, respectively.

As of June 30, 2018, the Company had not developed a commercial product using the licensed technologies and no royalties under the agreement had been paid or were due.

Under the Harvard/DFCI agreement, the Company is responsible for all patent expenses related to the prosecution and maintenance of the licensed patents and applications in-licensed under the agreement as well as cost reimbursement of amounts incurred for all documented patent-related expenses. The agreement will expire on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis upon the last to expire of any valid patent claim pertaining to licensed products covered under the agreement.

Umicore Agreement

In December 2006, the Company entered into a license agreement with Materia, Inc. (“Materia”), under which it was granted a non-exclusive worldwide license, with the right to sublicense, under specified patent and patent applications to utilize Materia’s catalysts to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize specified peptides owned or controlled by Materia and the right to manufacture specified compositions owned or controlled by Materia. In February 2017, Materia assigned the license agreement (the “Umicore agreement”) to Umicore Precious Metals Chemistry USA, LLC (“Umicore”), and Umicore agreed to continue to supply the Company under the agreement.

Under the Umicore agreement, the Company is obligated to make aggregate milestone payments to Umicore of up to $6,400 upon the Company’s achievement of specified clinical, regulatory and sales milestones with respect to each licensed product. In addition, the Company is obligated to pay tiered royalties ranging in the low single-digit percentages on annual net sales of licensed products sold by the Company or its sublicensees. The royalties are payable on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis, and may be reduced in specified circumstances.

The Umicore agreement requires the Company to pay annual license fees of $50. The Company did not incur any license fees during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. In addition, the Company did not make any milestone payments during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, no milestones were achieved and no liabilities for additional milestone payments were recorded in the Company’s financial statements.

The agreement expires upon the expiration of the Company’s obligation to pay royalties in each territory covered under the agreement.

Scripps Agreement

In October 2010, the Company entered into a patent license agreement (the “Scripps agreement”) with The Scripps Research Institute (“Scripps”) under which it was granted a license, with the right to sublicense, for the exclusive worldwide rights to utilize Scripps’ “Click” chemistry for therapeutics and non-exclusive worldwide rights for diagnostics with the Company’s stabilized peptide and protein technology platforms.

15


 

Under the agreement, the Company is obligated to make aggregate milestone payments to Scripps of up to $1,900 for each licensed peptide product and up to $950 for each licensed protein product upon achieving of specified clinical, regulatory and commercial milestones. In addition, the Company is obligated to pay tiered royalties ranging in the low single-digit percentages on annual net sales of licensed products sold by the Company or its sublicensees. The royalties are payable on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. The Scripps agreement requires the Company to pay annual license fees of $50. The Company did not incur any license fees during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

As of June 30, 2018, no milestones had been achieved and no liabilities for milestone payments had been recorded in the Company’s financial statements. As of June 30, 2018, the Company had not developed a commercial product using the licensed technologies and no royalties under the agreement had been paid or were due.

The agreement expires upon expiration of the last of any patent rights covered under the agreement.

Indemnification Agreements

In the ordinary course of business, the Company may provide indemnification of varying scope and terms to vendors, lessors, business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters including, but not limited to, losses arising out of breach of such agreements or from intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with members of its board of directors and officers that will require the Company, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is, in many cases, unlimited. To date, the Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such indemnifications. The Company does not believe that the outcome of any claims under indemnification arrangements will have a material effect on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows, and it had not accrued any liabilities related to such obligations in its financial statements as of June 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017.

10. Income Taxes

The Company did not provide for any income taxes for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. The Company has evaluated the positive and negative evidence bearing upon the realizability of its U.S. net deferred tax assets. As required by the provisions of ASC 740, Income Taxes, management has determined that it is more-likely-than-not that the Company will not utilize the benefits of federal and state U.S. net deferred tax assets for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the net deferred tax assets are subject to a valuation allowance at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

 

 

16


 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our audited financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2017 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on April 2, 2018, which we refer to as our 2017 Form 10-K.

Some of the statements contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, constitute forward looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. The following information and any forward-looking statements should be considered in light of factors discussed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q particularly including those risks identified in Part II-Item 1A “Risk Factors” and our other filings with the SEC.

Our actual results and timing of certain events may differ materially from the results discussed, projected, anticipated, or indicated in any forward-looking statements. We caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Statements made herein are as of the date of the filing of this Form 10-Q with the SEC and should not be relied upon as of any subsequent date. Even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the SEC, to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements may be based or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements made by us, which speak only as of the date they are made.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company that is focused on developing and commercializing a novel class of therapeutics called stapled peptides. Our lead product candidate, ALRN-6924, targets the tumor suppressor p53 for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. ALRN-6924, which is currently being tested in multiple clinical trials, reactivates p53-mediated tumor suppression by targeting the two primary p53 suppressor proteins, MDMX and MDM2. Our ongoing clinical trials of ALRN-6924 consist of a Phase 1 trial for the treatment of advanced solid tumors or lymphomas, which we refer to as our Phase I All comers trial, a Phase 2a trial for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, or PTCL, a Phase 1 trial for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome, or MDS, as a monotherapy and a Phase 1b trial for the treatment of AML/MDS in combination with cytosine arabinoside, or Ara-C. We believe that by using our proprietary stapled peptide drug platform, we can develop first-in-class molecules, like ALRN-6924, that contain a novel set of properties. As such, our stapled peptide drugs may be able to address historically undruggable targets and complex mechanisms, such as intracellular protein-protein interactions like p53, that underlie many diseases with high unmet medical need. We believe that stapled peptide therapeutics have the potential to become a major class of drugs, like small molecules and monoclonal antibodies, for oncology and other therapeutic areas, and may significantly improve treatment paradigms and clinical outcomes for patients.

We are conducting our Phase 2a trial in relapsed and/or refractory PTCL patients whose cells contain wild-type (WT) p53 and who have failed at least one prior line of therapy. Patients in the first cohort of the Phase 2a PTCL trial are receiving a 3.1 mg/kg dose of ALRN-6924 on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 28-day cycle, with scans being performed after every two cycles. As previously reported in the 2017 10-K, as of February 26, 2018, we had administered ALRN-6924 to 16 patients in accordance with this dosing regimen, including one PTCL patient enrolled in the Phase 1 All-comers trial who received ALRN-6924 using the same dosing regimen, and 14 of these patients were evaluable. Of the evaluable patients, six (43%) demonstrated disease control, consisting of two patients who achieved complete responses, one patient who achieved a partial response and three patients who achieved stable disease with all of the stable disease patients experiencing tumor shrinkage. As of our most recent abstract-driven data cut-off date of July 13, 2018, the two patients who achieved complete responses continue on treatment.  

We are also exploring a second dosing regimen in the trial under which patients in the trial receive three doses of 3.1 mg/kg in the first week, followed by two weeks off in a 21-day cycle. We are evaluating this new dosing regimen to assess whether a more frequent dosing regimen could improve the response rate of ALRN-6924 while still maintaining a favorable safety profile. We expect to report additional interim data from the trial, including from patients in the second cohort who receive the three doses per week, at a major medical conference in the fourth quarter of 2018.

17


 

We are also continuing to enroll patients in our AML/MDS Phase 1 and Phase 1b dose escalation trials. In the Phase 1 monotherapy trial, we have tested three doses of ALRN-6924, 3.1 mg/kg, 4.4 mg/kg, and 5.8 mg/kg, and in our Phase 1b combination trial, we have tested ALRN-6924, 3.1 mg/kg in combination with two different low doses (100 or 200 mg/m2) of Ara-C and ALRN-6924, 4.4 mg/kg in combination with 200 mg/m2 of Ara-C. We have completed enrollment of the 4.4 mg/kg in combination with 200 mg/m2 Ara-C cohort in the second quarter of 2018, and we have initiated an expansion cohort in MDS patients using this dosing regimen in the third quarter of 2018.

We are also testing ALRN-6924 in the Phase 1 AML/MDS monotherapy dose-escalation trial under a dosing regimen where patients receive ALRN-6924 (starting at 2.7 mg/kg) three times per week for two consecutive weeks, followed by one week off, in a 21-day cycle. After the first cohort of three patients cleared safety review committee oversight at the 2.7 mg/kg dose, three new patients were enrolled at 3.8 mg/kg, the next dose level per protocol. One of those three patients died of tumor lysis syndrome related to treatment with ALRN-6924.  We have reported the death to the FDA, and since the death, have dosed an additional three patients at the 2.7 mg/kg dose level as per trial protocol. We plan to continue to enroll patients in the trial. We plan to report interim data from our AML/MDS trials, including in patients in the new dosing regimen and patients in the MDS expansion cohort at a major medical conference in the fourth quarter of 2018.

In addition, because many approved drugs and drug candidates for cancer require a functioning p53 pathway, we have expanded and advanced our non-clinical research to test a variety of approved drugs in combination with ALRN-6924, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors, PD-1/-L1 inhibitors, and paclitaxel (formulated as Abraxane or Taxol). We plan to provide updates on our non-clinical research and our plans for ALRN-6924 combination studies during the second half of 2018. Subject to the results of our ongoing research, partnering discussions, and obtaining additional funding, we expect to conduct one or more additional clinical trials of ALRN-6924 in combination with other anti-cancer agents within the next six to twelve months.

We were incorporated in 2001 and commenced principal operations in 2006. We have devoted substantially all of our resources to developing our product candidates, including ALRN-6924, developing our stapled peptide platform, building our intellectual property portfolio, business planning, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations.

On June 28, 2017, our registration statement on Form S-1 relating to our initial public offering of our common stock, or IPO, was declared effective by the SEC. In the IPO, which closed on July 5, 2017, we issued and sold 3,750,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $15.00 per share for net proceeds of $50.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $3.9 million and offering expenses of $2.3 million. Upon the closing of the IPO, all shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an aggregate of 10,509,774 shares of common stock.

Prior to the IPO, we financed our operations through private placements of preferred stock and, to a lesser extent, from payments received under a collaboration agreement. Since our inception through June 30, 2018, we had received $50.0 million in net proceeds from our IPO, $131.2 million from our sales of preferred stock and $34.9 million from the collaboration agreement.

Since our inception, we have incurred significant losses on an aggregate basis. Our net losses were $9.5 million and $4.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of June 30, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $154.0 million. These losses have resulted primarily from costs incurred in connection with research and development activities, licensing and patent investment and general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for at least the next several years.

As a result, we will need additional financing to support our continuing operations. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include collaborations with third parties. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such agreements as and when needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when or if we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we are able to generate revenue from product sales, we may not become profitable. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce or terminate our operations.

As of June 30, 2018, we had cash, cash equivalents and investments of $35.8 million. We believe that our cash, cash equivalents and investments as of June 30, 2018, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements, including clinical trials, into the second half of 2019. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we expect. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” Our future viability beyond that point is dependent on our ability to raise additional capital to finance our operations.

        

18


 

Components of our Results of Operations

Revenue

We have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products in the near future. If our development efforts for ALRN-6924 or other product candidates that we may develop in the future are successful and result in marketing approval or collaboration or license agreements with third parties, we may generate revenue in the future from a combination of product sales or payments from collaboration or license agreements that we may enter into with third parties.

Operating Expenses

Our expenses since inception have consisted solely of research and development costs and general and administrative costs.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts, and the development of our product candidates, and include:

 

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, that conduct research, preclinical activities and clinical trials on our behalf as well as contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, that manufacture our product candidates for use in our preclinical and clinical trials;

 

salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;

 

costs of outside consultants, including their fees, stock-based compensation and related travel expenses;

 

the costs of laboratory supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;

 

costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements; and

 

facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.

We expense research and development costs as incurred. We recognize costs for certain development activities, such as clinical trials, based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as patient enrollment, clinical site activations or information provided to us by our vendors and our clinical investigative sites. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in our financial statements as prepaid or accrued research and development expenses.

We typically use our employee and infrastructure resources across our development programs. We track outsourced development costs and milestone payments made under our licensing arrangements by product candidate or development program, but we do not allocate personnel costs, license payments made under our licensing arrangements or other internal costs to specific development programs or product candidates. These costs are included in unallocated research and development expenses in the table below. Unallocated research and development expenses also includes internal research relating to non-clinical and pipeline compounds in oncology and non-oncology indications.

The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by product candidate or development program:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

ALRN-6924 and p53 program

 

$

3,324

 

 

$

2,021

 

 

$

5,915

 

 

$

3,759

 

Other early-stage development programs

 

 

137

 

 

 

33

 

 

 

214

 

 

 

105

 

Unallocated research and development expenses

 

 

1,859

 

 

 

1,107

 

 

 

4,037

 

 

 

2,239

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

5,320

 

 

$

3,161

 

 

$

10,166

 

 

$

6,103

 

 

19


 

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue our non-clinical research testing a variety of approved drugs in combination with ALRN-6924, initiate additional clinical trials of ALRN-6924, pursue later stages of clinical development of ALRN-6924, initiate clinical trials for product candidates other than ALRN-6924 and continue to discover and develop additional product candidates, including product candidates for targets in which we have made substantial investments in prior years for the treatment of a variety of disease indications. We also expect that our research and development expenses will increase in the future as we increase our research and development headcount to support the increase in our research and development activities.

We cannot determine with certainty the duration and costs of the current or future clinical trials of our product candidates or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. We may never succeed in obtaining marketing approval for any of our product candidates. The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

 

the scope, rate of progress, expense and results of our ongoing clinical trials of ALRN-6924, as well as of any future clinical trials of ALRN-6924 or other product candidates and other research and development activities that we may conduct;

 

uncertainties in clinical trial design and patient enrollment rates;

 

significant and changing government regulation and regulatory guidance;

 

the timing and receipt of any marketing approvals; and

 

the expense of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or another regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development of a product candidate, or if we experience significant trial delays due to patient enrollment or other reasons, we would be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development.

We are currently conducting our Phase 1 All-comers trial, our Phase 2a PTCL trial and our Phase 1/1b AML/MDS trials. At this time, we cannot reasonably estimate the cost for initiating and completing other clinical trials of ALRN-6924 and preclinical studies of ALRN-6924, as it will be highly dependent on the clinical data from ongoing clinical trials as well as any target disease subpopulations chosen for further evaluation.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate and business development and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses are comprised of professional fees associated with being a public company including costs of accounting, auditing, legal, regulatory, tax and consulting services associated with maintaining compliance with exchange listing and SEC requirements, director and officer insurance costs; and both public and investor relations costs. General and administrative expenses also include legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters; other insurance costs; travel expenses; and facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our general and administrative personnel headcount to support personnel in research and development and to support our operations generally as we increase our research and development activities and activities related to the potential commercialization of our product candidates. We also expect to incur increased expenses associated with operating as a public company, including costs of accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with exchange listing and SEC requirements; director and officer insurance costs; and investor and public relations costs.

Interest Income

Interest income consists of interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents and investments. Prior to the IPO, our interest income had not been significant due to low investment balances and low interest earned on those balances. Our interest income increased following the IPO due to higher investment balances and interest carried on those balances. We anticipate that our interest income will decrease in the future to the extent our cash, cash equivalents and investments are lower due to our use of cash to fund our operations.

20


 

Income Taxes

Since our inception in 2001, we have not recorded any U.S. federal or state income tax benefits for the net losses we have incurred in any year or for our earned research and development tax credits, due to our uncertainty of realizing a benefit from those items. As of December 31, 2017, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $129.6 million and $125.8 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2029 and 2030, respectively. As of December 31, 2017, we also had federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of $2.0 million and $1.2 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2025.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended June 30, 2018 and 2017

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

5,320

 

 

 

3,161

 

 

 

2,159

 

General and administrative

 

 

4,339

 

 

 

1,791

 

 

 

2,548

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

9,659

 

 

 

4,952

 

 

 

4,707

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(9,659

)

 

 

(4,952

)

 

 

(4,707

)

Interest income

 

 

168

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

139

 

Net loss

 

$

(9,491

)

 

$

(4,923

)